In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a complex process that is used to increased the probability of pregnancy.

In Vitro Fertilization is a technique used in cases of women with tubal damage, moderate to severe endometriosis, and other conditions, and is indicated for those couples who have not been able to achieve a pregnancy naturally, or after surgical or other treatments such as artificial insemination.

The process consists of the following steps

  • Ovarian stimulation: This involves the application of hormone subcutaneously for 6 to 10 days.  During this time, the patient must visit the doctor 3 to 4 times for follicular monitoring and blood tests for adequate control. This process is used to generate an adequate number of eggs which will be united with sperm to generate embryos.
  • Egg retrieval: After the ovaries have produced sufficient eggs, they are retrieved.  This procedure done in the operating room under sedation. The egg retrieval is done trans-vaginally by ultrasound.  Complications are minimal and the patient may resume work the same day.
  • Insemination:This process involves joining of eggs with sperm for fertilization. There are two ways to achieve insemination, the conventional method by placing an egg with thousands of sperm and allow fertilization to happen naturally, or by ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) which is when sperm is injected into each egg by a specialist.
  • Embryo Culture: During this period, the embryos remain in culture mediums in incubators and embryonic development is monitored for up  to 6 days.
  • Embryo Transfer:Typically the transfer is made on the fifth day of embryonic development but depends on the individual case and the assessment made by the physician and embryologist. It involves taking 1 or 2 embryos, and using a catheter to introduce them into the uterus. This procedure is guided by using ultrasound.